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Dark spots Write For Us – Surely, facial melasma does not ring a bell, but you know what we mean when talking about skin blemishes. Facial melasma is a significant concern for those who care about their physical appearance. This common skin pathology consisting of dark spots is suffered mainly by women. Do you want to know more?

Bulevar Sur has contacted several experts. One of them is Doctor Gabriel Serrano, president and founder of Sesderma and active Dermatologist at the Dr. Gabriel Serrano Dermatological Clinic. Also, Inmaculada Cantella from the Cosmeceutical Center in Seville, and Dr. Carmen Danta, from the Marest Clinic in Seville.

What is melasma

According to Carmen Data, melasma “is a skin pathology, dark spots mainly on the face. Women suffer it more, especially pregnant women, and there are many possible origins. However, only 10% of men suffer from melasma.

«Skin pigmentation, due to hyperproduction of melanin, is a defense mechanism to protect itself from free radicals produced by solar radiation. But there are cases in which this pigmentation becomes disordered. Excess production and an irregular distribution of melanin are observed, leading to hyperpigmented spots”, ” adds Inmaculada Cantella.

The leading causes of the appearance of melasma are:

  • Excessive sun exposure.
  • Intake of contraceptives that alter the proper functioning of melanocytes.
  • Intake of photosensitive medications.
  • The phototype. Dark skins are more prone to the appearance of spots.
  • Depilatory waxes. After waxing, the possibility of spots appearing in the recently waxed area increases.

What are the zones of the face that suffer the most from melasma?

It usually appears on areas exposed to the sun: forehead, upper lip, chin, cheeks, neck, and forearms, Gabriel tells us. The disease is classified into epidermal, dermal, and mixed melasma. Moderate or severe. And according to the facial location: dentofacial (forehead, nose, upper lip, and chin), malar (cheeks), and mandibular (in the maxillary area).

How to prevent melasma

The best prevention is to avoid the sun as much as possible or, at least, use sun creams throughout the year. But if you want to know much more about how to prevent melasma from appearing on your face, follow the advice of Inmaculada Canterla:

  • Avoid factors that trigger melasma, such as overexposure to UVA, UVB, Infrared radiation, and even visible light.
    • Avoid the use of hormonal contraceptives and photosensitizing drugs.
    • Use photoprotection on a daily, constant and permanent basis. The sunscreen application should be made every three or four hours, layer upon layer, with a sufficient amount to cover the area to be treated generously and widely. Sunscreen is a basic that should not be missing in winter or summer. Come rain or shine.
    • Change of habits: use of clothing and accessories (hats, glasses, umbrellas or parasols, etc.) for the treatment and control of melasma.

Are there different types of melasma? Which?

Dermatologists use a light known as Wood’s light, which indicates the type of melasma. The epidermal type is brown; the dermal is bluish-gray, and the mixed one is of a grayish-brown color, a combination of the previous ones.

How long does facial melasma last?

In pregnancy, the spots usually disappear after giving birth in most cases, but in the rest, they can last several years. It depends on the treatment and care we take with the sun.

How to differentiate melasma from other spots

Melasma spots are acquired, chronic, symmetrical, and have irregular borders. Other areas, such as lentigosolar spots or age spots, are oval, appear alone or in groups of 3 or 4, affect the face, hands, arms, and shoulders, and are more common in light-skinned women and men. Also, from the age of 50 or before pe, people are exposed to the sun more constantly, Carmen Data points out.

Melasma treatment

Our body produces two types of melanin (responsible for giving color to the skin); pheomelanin (red, orange, or yellow) and eumelanin (goes from dark brown to black). Naturally, this assumes a wide variety of skin tones. To control an excess of melanin and, therefore, the appearance of spots, we can resort to depigmenting agents such as tranexamic acid, kojic acid, thioctic acid, 4-Butylresorcinol, azelaic acid, alpha-arbutin, antioxidants such as vitamins C and A., ferulic acid …”, explains Gabriel.

With them, we will get the following:

  • Interfere melanin biosynthesis and inhibit tyrosinase.
  • Avoid and lighten unwanted pigmentation.
  • Unify skin tone.
  • Enhance antioxidant activity.
  • These assets can be found in topical application creams.

“To optimize the results, performing a combination of the various treatments is usually necessary. In treating melasma, it is important to consider this combination of therapies, as it is tough, and the patient must be told that they are long treatments, which must be individualized depending on the problem and skin type and must be associated with photoprotection. Keep going. Although the result is satisfactory, there is a significant tendency for the pigmentation to reappear,” says Inmaculada.

There are different treatments, both at home and in the clinic. “There are many types of cosmetic depigmentation, but the most effective are those prescribed by prescription. Its objective is to inhibit the tyrosinase that causes the synthesis of melanin, thus, we will lighten the spots, but only that, we will not remove them, but we will unify the skin tone. At the consultation level, in a complementary way, we have two forms: the IPL laser and the medium-deep medical peels in which there is significant peeling (better to do them in autumn-winter)”, Carmen explains.

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«The complexity of the causes of the appearance of melasma makes its treatment and management complicated and has nothing to do with common aging spots and sun exposure, round-shaped solar lentigines, melanocytic or mole nevi. …” says Inmaculada.

Some of the products recommended by Sesderma for melasma are Azelac Ru Luminous Fluid SPF50. A  depigmenting cream with photoprotection specially formulated to be used during the day. It improves the appearance of dark spots, illuminates its luminous pigments, and protects thanks to its SPF50. Suitable for all skin types. Uzelac Ru Liposome Serum is an intensive depigmenting serum formulated with a high concentration of depigmenting active ingredients and antioxidants, improving the appearance of dark acne and even skin tone. Its use is recommended as a base treatment, day and night, for all skin types throughout the year.

Mederma Target Nanopeel is an effective treatment for all blemishes (including vascular melasma, which is considered very difficult to remove). This peeling combines innovative active ingredients encapsulated in liposomes. In this way, it manages to penetrate the skin and release these assets in a controlled manner so that they can act on their target of action. It also benefits photoaging, solar lentigines, acne, and rosacea and improves vascularity. After two sessions, the effects can already be seen.

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